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Camping

How to Make White Gas?

Discovering how to make white gas is essential for adventurous people who always want to explore outside for camping, hiking, or overnight experience. If you have a lot of confusion about the components, uses, and benefits of white gas, this article is made to improve your knowledge about it.

How to Make White Gas?
White gas components differ with the brand, but most of them are processed from a 100% light hydrotreated distillate liquid petroleum. The added component to complete the product is cyclohexane, heptane, nonane, octane, and pentane.

White gas is also a mixture of flammable liquid hydrocarbon. Any mixtures with naphtha have been made from natural condensed gas, petroleum distillates, and concentrate coal tar and peat. White gas is considered pure gasoline because it has no additives such as dyes and other hazardous chemicals.

What-Gas-Is-White

What Gas Is White?
Generally, white gas refers to a clear and colorless liquid taken from petroleum. White gas is well-known as Naphtha, Coleman Fuel, 100% Light Hydro Treated Distillate, Camp Fuel, or Petroleum Benzin.

It is mostly used by campers, hikers, or overnight trippers. Technically white gasses fuel is known for its component that burns clearly and can evaporate at a lower temperature. Therefore, it gives a clean and pleasant appearance to the stoves, and there is not much nasty odor emitted while in use.

Is kerosene the same as white gas?
White gas and kerosene are both liquid fuels. They are used for heating, cooking, and fueling machineries. In terms of quality, kerosene is inexpensive and readily available anywhere. It is one of the best alternatives for white gas.

However, based on feedback, the emitted gas from kerosene burns a lot. It results in a dirtier, tougher to clean, and stinky outcome on the stove. Kerosene also has a lesser heat production which results in a longer span of cooking.

On the other hand, white gases are more expensive depending on the brand. Its chemical composition is more purified. The white gas burns cleanly due o its high carbon content than kerosene. There are no clogs, dirt, and odors released. Moreover, it has higher heat production which makes your cooking time efficient.

How long does white gas last?
Any brand of white gas will last for a long time if only stored properly. Most commonly, the Coleman fuel will reach a lifespan of five to seven years when the container is unopened, and the storage has a stable temperature.
If it is already opened, it is only recommended to be used for 2 years. Opened containers should be stored in a cool and dry location to prevent the accumulation of rust and leakage. If there is the presence of unusual floating particles or bubbles, it is considered contaminated and needed to be disposed of immediately.

Can you burn white gas in a car?
White gas is certainly gasoline, but it has different components from car fuels. Although, there are instances where Coleman fuel is mixed with car fuel. Coleman fuel is also made from propane. Propane vehicles work similarly to other types of gas. That is why, white gasses are allowed as car fuel, thus the car must be converted to match with propane.

Adding a ratio of Coleman fuel to a full gas tank will not result in any damage to the engine. But if you try to run a car with only Coleman gas as fuel, it will likely damage the engine or it will not run.

Can I use gasoline instead of white gas?
If there are no other options, gasoline may be used instead of white gas. Nonetheless, it is not highly recommended as the first alternative option. Gasoline may be cheaper and easily accessible, but there are certain reasons which can oppose your decision.

Gasoline’s component oxidizes faster than white gas, which results in the formation of crusts, too many fumes, and crud that can induce a spark to a stove. While white gas, is a highly refined gas that has a more quality performance than gasoline.

How do you dispose of white gas?
Disposing of white gas is quite difficult. You cannot just pour the remaining solution into water sources and pollute the rivers or sewers. It is not also advisable to make it as water for the plants because the chemicals may kill it.

The safest way to dispose of white gas is to give it to someone who is planning for a hike or in need, so they can consume the remaining gas. Aside from that, you can mix the left-over gas with fresh white gas so you can still benefit from it. For the white gas container, you can bring it to the nearest recycling station to donate it.

Conclusion

White gas is typically referring to a liquid flammable substance. It has a highly refined element that brings satisfaction to users. It should not be confused with other types of gasoline, for it has its designated use. All in all, we hope that reading this article will enlighten you on how to make white gas.

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Camping

How Cold Does It Have To Be to Freeze to Death?

How Cold Does It Have To Be to Freeze to Death

Knowing how cold does it have to be to freeze to death is an important knowledge that we all should be aware of. Around the globe, people experience different types of weather and phenomena. One of them is having a cold location.

Anyone can endure cold temperatures, but as humans as we are, there will always be a boundary of our capabilities. Here in this article is a bunch of information about the limits of the human body to a cold environment.

How cold does it have to be to freeze to death?

Normally, a human body can hold an average temperature between 97°F (36°C) to 100°F (37.7°C). Someone can freeze to death when there is a sudden loss or decrease in your body heat of less than 95° F (35° C), which is called Hypothermia.

Why hypothermia is lethal?

This condition is considered to be dangerous because once the body temperature drops, hypothermia will affect the normal functioning of the internal organs. It targets our heart, lungs, nervous system, and is followed by other body systems. Factors resulting in hypothermia are too much exposure to very cold weather and extremely cold water.

Mild hypothermia

There are several levels of hypothermia which are mild hypothermia, moderate hypothermia, and severe hypothermia. Mild hypothermia experiences a temperature of 95°F (35°C) down to 90°F (32.2°C).

An individual will start shivering, unable to perform complex motor functions but still able to walk or talk and have constricted blood vessels of peripheral areas of the body such as the fingers and toes.

Moderate hypothermia

Moderate hypothermia happens with a body temperature between 90°F (32.2°C) and 82.4°F(28°C). There is already a decreased level of consciousness followed by dilation of pupils, irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure, and loss of motor control.

Severe hypothermia

In Severe hypothermia, this will induce shock and deterioration of body organs. A person will have labored breathing, pulmonary edema, and until the heart shuts down into a cardiac arrest. The temperature that can lead to death is less than 82.4°F (28°C).

What does dying of hypothermia feel like?

Hypothermia begins when your body is being exposed to extreme cold that causes your body temperature to fall below 95°F (35°C). In a minute, through your skin, signals will be sent to the hypothalamus, what is known as the ‘Thermoeffector’ response. When the body is losing heat, vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis operate to increase metabolic heat production to maintain thermal balance.

Vasoconstriction

Vasoconstriction is when the blood vessels in our skin constrict for the body to maintain its core temperature. Shivering thermogenesis is when brown adipose tissue activates using a high level of glucose and lipids to produce heat.

It will constantly contract your skeletal muscles. But if you are still exposed to the cold you could get frostbite within 30 minutes. It will damage your cell membrane, and your body still tries to prevent frostbite in your skin through vasodilation to increase the blood flow to warm the skin cells.

Delirium

Delirium is one of Hypothermia’s advanced stages where your organs begin to fail, your breathing rate slows, you also lose coordination, your heart rate begins to slow down, and your body will stop shivering. 25% of the cases the victims undressed themselves before they died.

There is a theory that because of brain damage due to extreme cold, people think they are burning up. Another theory is the muscle responsible for cutaneous vasoconstriction in our blood vessels gets drained and causes blood from our core to fill the surface of our body.

Cold Does It Have To Be to Freeze to Death

Is freezing to death humane?

There is no guarantee that any kind of death can be humane. But two things are for sure, almost all humans do not want painful death and that life is not complete without dying. People always ask the question if dying from freezing is painful.

When your shivering is uncontrollable it is more likely that your temperature falls below 34 °C. If you reach 32 °C, you can experience amnesia, irrational thoughts, sluggish thinking, amnesia, and difficulty speaking, but you can still experience calmness even though you know you are in a serious situation. You cannot feel serious pain or distress.

The moment it drops below 32 °C, your shivering stops. Some organs from your body start to shut down, lying and sending messages to the brain telling it that these are not affected. Your brain does not have a clue anymore if it is cold.

Now, this is the time you start to experience paradoxical undressing behavior that makes you feel confused, combative, and disoriented. You start to remove your clothes as you feel that your skin is too hot and burning. You did not know that it increases your rate of heat loss. But you cannot feel that you are frightened or even alarmed.

At what temperature is it dangerous to be outside?

You cannot fully base your temperature according to your thermometer, it is something that you should not be concerned about. It depends on the climate in your environment that can affect the temperature you feel. It is called “apparent temperature”.

At what temperature is it dangerous to be outside

High environmental temperatures can be dangerous to your body. 90˚ and 105˚F (32˚ and 40˚C), you can experience exhaustion and heat cramps. In between 105˚ and 130˚F (40˚ and 54˚), there is a higher chance to get exhausted. And of course, you should limit your activities at this range. 130˚F (54˚C) environmental temperature can lead to heatstroke.

Opposite to that, extreme cold temperatures can also be dangerous to the human body. You should use the wind-chill as the basis if it is too cold to be outside. In general, you cannot get frostbite if the air temperature is above 32˚F (0 C).

Indoor breaks should be expected to happen every 20-30 minutes if the temperature hits 13 degrees to 31 degrees. But if it’s 0˚F (minus 18˚C) with a wind chill of minus 19˚F (minus 28˚C), you will be more likely to be frostbitten in 30 minutes; but if it’s minus 15˚F (minus 26˚C) with a wind chill of minus 55(minus 48˚C), you could get frostbite in just 5 minutes according to the National Weather Service.

Conclusion

Even if humans have the ability to adapt, death still strikes in extreme cold temperatures. The lowest body temperature considered to be severe for humans is at 82.4°F (28°C) and below. The shortest time of freezing to death is 10 minutes with a temperature of minus 30°F (minus 34°C).

Therefore, a body will not directly freeze to death, but it will take some time to process and experience different symptoms before completely dying. We hope this article helped you attain the necessary information as well as answer your question, how cold does it have to be to freeze to death.